What is a serialVersionUID and why should I use it?

Eclipse issues warnings when a serialVersionUID is missing.

The serializable class Foo does not declare a static final
serialVersionUID field of type long

What is serialVersionUID and why is it important? Please show an example where missing serialVersionUID will cause a problem.


The docs for java.io.Serializable are probably about as good an explanation as you’ll get:

The serialization runtime associates
with each serializable class a version
number, called a serialVersionUID,
which is used during deserialization
to verify that the sender and receiver
of a serialized object have loaded
classes for that object that are
compatible with respect to
serialization. If the receiver has
loaded a class for the object that has
a different serialVersionUID than that
of the corresponding sender’s class,
then deserialization will result in an
InvalidClassException. A serializable
class can declare its own
serialVersionUID explicitly by
declaring a field named
serialVersionUID” that must be
static, final, and of type long:

If a
serializable class does not explicitly
declare a serialVersionUID, then the
serialization runtime will calculate a
default serialVersionUID value for
that class based on various aspects of
the class, as described in the
Java(TM) Object Serialization
Specification. However, it is strongly
recommended
that all serializable
classes explicitly declare
serialVersionUID values, since the
default serialVersionUID computation
is highly sensitive to class details
that may vary depending on compiler
implementations, and can thus result
in unexpected InvalidClassExceptions
during deserialization. Therefore, to
guarantee a consistent
serialVersionUID value across
different java compiler
implementations, a serializable class
must declare an explicit
serialVersionUID value. It is also
strongly advised that explicit
serialVersionUID declarations use the
private modifier where possible, since
such declarations apply only to the
immediately declaring
class–serialVersionUID fields are not
useful as inherited members.